Pic of the Day 2019-02-03: Stadiums with a Past

I am pretty unexcited about this evening’s “big game” between the bandwagon team of dubious integrity and the other guys that rammed their way in via an egregious no-call. Perhaps you, dear reader, need a diversion from the endless-but-not-timeless hype of the afternoon.

This week, the question came up in conversation (I don’t even remember with who), “what happened to the Georgia Dome?” [For the uninformed, Super Bowl LIII will be played in the new Mercedes-Benz Stadium which has replaced the former as Atlanta’s main sports venue.] The answer: it was “blowed up” (video here) and removed from existence to make way for the great hood ornament stadium (here is a time lapse of the transition). Apparently Atlanta has some recycling issues (as here). Rather than go on about our “throw-away society,” I offer the contrast of stadiums that have endured to tell about their culture in a way the Georgia Dome never will. Today’s Pic(s) Of The Day:

The stadium at Aphrodisias, in Turkey; looking west (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2012-05-21)

We begin with the well-preserved stadium at Aphrodisias, in Asia Minor (present-day Turkey). It is fairly typical in construction, but has semi-circles of seats at both ends, creating a closed oblong shape.

The stadium at Aphrodisias, in Turkey; view to the east in late afternoon light (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2012-05-21)

There are several nicely-preserved stadia in Turkey, including the recently-exposed huge example at Magnesia-on-the-Meander. It is difficult to capture without a panoramic view:

Panorama of the large recently-exposed stadium at Magnesia-on-the-Meander, in Turkey (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2016-05-27)

This example is open on one end, which is more typical. It also has some trappings found in other ancient stadiums that we would find familiar, such as reserved sections (as the regular bench seats with inscribed group names at left).

The Magnesia-on-the-Meander stadium also sports some luxury features that, coupled with its huge size, make it something of the Mercedes-Benz Stadium of Roman Asia. Premium seating is found down low, in a ring pictured below, and in apparent box-seat sections at the end. No retractable roof, though, but with a view and weather like this who cares?

Premium seating ring in the stadium at Magnesia-on-the-Meander, in Turkey (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2014-05-18)

Finally, a couple of views of the best-preserved stadium in Greece; the one at the high point of the remains of ancient Delphi; home of the famous Oracle of Apollo:

The stadium at Delphi, site of the great Oracle of Apollo; view to east from the closed end, taken before an earthquake made it unsafe (and not allowed) to enter the stadium (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 1985)
View to west from the open end of the stadium at Delphi, from behind the nicely-preserved starting line and judges boxes(?) (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 1985)

As you can see, the Delphi stadium is on the side of a mountain (Mt Parnassus), and the lower (south) side has a significant retaining wall. In that wall, on the east end, is an inscription also having a modern echo. It places limitations on wine brought in or out of the stadium:

Delphi stadium: inscription on east end of southern retaining wall, with regulations on wine brought in or out (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2015-05-14)

You may be wondering why I have not included famous structures like the Colosseum in Rome. That is because the Colosseum is actually an amphitheater, not a stadium. An amphitheater is like a theater in structure, but the seats go all the way around in an oval. Our modern “stadiums” are actually built more like Roman amphitheaters than Greek or Roman stadiums. Modern structures that many people call amphitheaters are really just theaters . . . confusing; but amphitheaters will have to wait for a different post.

View of Delphi theater and Temple of Apollo just below (site of the Oracle) and other remains further downslope (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2015-05-14)

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P.S.: Go Rams!


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Pic of the Day 2019-01-28: the Shipwreck of State

I try to make my posts as relevant as possible to current events or special days. Yesterday was a fail,[1] and today is a bit of a stretch. Venezuela is in crisis. I have never been there, but have been close . . .  so this POTD features Aruba, a few miles to the north. In addition to the subtle nod to Venezuelan chaos, it is also part of my rebellion against winter this year.

Shipwreck on N Coast of Aruba
Mrs Ancient Dan contemplates a grounded shipwreck and sailboat against a sunset backdrop on the North coast of Aruba (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2005-06-27)

There are several wrecks around Aruba, including the beached ship pictured here.

The daughters of Ancient Dan snorkel near a shipwreck off Aruba, south of Malmok Beach (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2005-06-23)

Several submerged wrecks make Aruba a good diving destination. The largest ship is the SS Antilla, a German merchant ship scuttled by her captain to avoid capture just after the outbreak of WWII in 1940. The SS California was a wooden steamship that wrecked off the N coast of Aruba in 1891. A lighthouse built two decades later to avoid similar outcomes is named for that ill-fated ship.

The California Lighthouse, built in 1914 and named for a nearby wrecked ship off the North coast of Aruba (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2005-06-24)

Plato relates Socrates’ use of the Ship of State analogy (Republic6. 488a–489d) to comment on selection of and qualifications for leaders of democracies. Here’s hoping that Venezuela can put a man at the helm who understands the winds of change and looks for the guiding light.

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[1] 27 January is International Holocaust Remembrance Day; observed on the anniversary of the “liberation” of the Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp by the Soviet army in 1945. Sadly, I was unable to locate my pictures of Auschwitz and Birkenau for a somber POTD post.

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Pic of the Day 2019-01-14: Dolmens in Spain

Having got on a roll with dolmen Pic(s) Of The Days, I decided to put some little-known examples from Spain into the mix (also, I wanted to get something there on the Pic Of The Day Map).

The Gorafe depression, a canyon carved by Rio Gor in the “Bad Lands” of Spain; Parque Megalítico de Gorafe with many dolmens extends along the ridge on the right; with some larger ones downslope, as the one with a tumulus at lower left, and others on the opposite ridge—240 in all (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2017-03-17)

Spain is rich in Neolithic remains. Here I present dolmens in the Parque Megalítico de Gorafe. The “Gorafe Megalithic Park” and surrounding area is home to 240 dolmens. Most are rather un-sensational, but they preserve a range of types in the development of megalithic tombs. And the open-access park itself is a model of cultural heritage preservation for an isolated collection of easily destroyed monuments, and for presentation with durable, unintrusive signage.

One of many visually unimpressive but well-conserved dolmens in Parque Megalítico de Gorafe: number 111, near the canyon cliff edge (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2017-03-17)

The most impressive dolmen in the park is number 134, some 40 m below the canyon cliff edge, but still about 100 m above the Rio Gor.

View of the back side of Gorafe 134 (Parque Megalítico de Gorafe), on a ridge about a third of the way down into the canyon (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2017-03-17)

Number 134 combines elements of various megalithic tombs. It appears to be a mashup of dolmen, wedge tomb, and passage tomb features.

Gorafe 134; Parque Megalítico de Gorafe, Grenada Province, Spain (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2017-03-17)

I don’t think you get this on the bus tour; but there is a nice dirt road along the canyon top, and a car pull-off below with a trail up to number 134 (along with 132, 133, 135, and 239).

Gorafe 134; Parque Megalítico de Gorafe, Grenada Province, Spain [Ancient Dan added for scale] (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2017-03-17)

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Pic of the Day 2019-01-13: Dolmens [sic] you might get on the bus tour

Because I am about to attend the “Celtic Worship” service at University Baptist Church, I decided to make an additional brief POTD post of domens in Ireland, as a continuance to what has now become a short series of dolmen pics. But are they dolmens? North European megalith-admirers have a lot to work with and have created an array of categories, such as the “portal tombs” featured in yesterday’s post.

Poulnabrone Portal Tomb; County Clare, Ireland (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2016-05-14)

Perhaps the most wide-photographed “dolmen” in Ireland is more officially known as Poulnabrone Portal Tomb. Resembling the form of most Middle Eastern dolmens, it stands majestically in the weird landscape of The Burren, in County Clare. Portal tombs have entrances flanked by tall megaliths supporting the roof, and Poulnabrone fits that description. The parallel sides of the chamber, however, are constructed of multiple megaliths while Jordanian examples usually have a single stone on each side.

Parknabinnia Wedge Tomb; County Clare, Ireland (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2016-05-14)

You might well see Poulnabrone Portal Tomb on a bus tour, but off the main road over the hills but not far away are other “dolmens” even more evocative of the ones in Jordan. An example is the Parkanbinnia tomb (above). These are called “wedge tombs” because the sides generally converge slightly away from the entrance—which is too low to enter standing and, presumably, thus does not rate the designation “portal.”

Meggagh Wedge Tomb; County Clare, Ireland (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2016-05-14)

Finally, moving to the east side of Ireland, the Brownshill Dolmen has the largest capstone known. It is also officially a portal tomb.

Ancient Dan stands in the portal of the Brownshill Dolmen, Ireland (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2016-05-10)

Brownsville Portal Tomb is also easily reached by passing bus tours. But you should still get a car . . .

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Pic of the Day 2019-01-12: Balykeel Dolmen (you also don’t get this on the bus tour)

Mrs. Ancient Dan’s response to my Facebook share of the previous POTD post (about dolmens in Jordan) is a reminder that most people have seen dolmens in Ireland or other parts of NW Europe rather than Jordan. So, to continue the dolmen theme—and to get an Ireland location on the POTD Map—I will add a couple of posts on dolmens there. This one is an underappreciated gem; the Ballykeel Dolmen.

Ballykeel Dolmen (Mullaghbawn, Newry, Northern Ireland) appears to point at the nearly full moon (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2016-05-18)

Ballykeel Dolmen is off the beaten path (making it a “You Don’t Get This on the Bus Tour” listing), nestled between some residences outside of Newry, Northern Ireland. The site is protected and fenced with a gate an explanatory sign (more portable than intended on our visit), but it is underappreciated and visited only by those that know they want to go there.[1]

Ballykeel Dolmen site (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2016-05-18)

The dolmen lies at the east end of a cairn (pile of stones and dirt) that was built up to and around it in antiquity. It proved a pleasant spot for a sunset picnic dinner in May 2016 with a former student (then studying at Trinity College, Dublin). Takeaway fish and chips (from Fiships in Camlough, Newry) hit the spot!

Ancient Dan enjoys a fish and chips picnic with Van and Felicia at the Ballykeel Dolmen site (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2016-05-18)

Unlike middle eastern dolmens, which are almost universally “trilithions” made from two parallel vertical slabs and another spanning their tops, Ballykeel and many other so-called “portal tombs” in Ireland have a tripod of megaliths supporting the roof slab with one pair of supports forming the entrance “portal.”

Ballykeel Dolmen, showing the three supports with entrance on the right (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2016-05-18)
Ballykeel Dolmen, Northern Ireland, with Van for scale (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2016-05-18)

If you ever visit Ireland, do it with a car. That way you can find and enjoy great out-of-the-way and mysterious sites like Ballykeel Dolmen.

Next up: dolmens [sic] you might get on the bus tour!

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[1] BTW, a great place to find megalithic and other ancient sites to visit wherever you may travel is the Megalithic Portal; here is their page for Ballykeel Dolmen as an example.

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Pic of the Day 2019-01-11: Dolmens and Tombs (you don’t get this on the bus tour)

Dolmen scholar James Fraser’s work was featured in a Jordan Times article yesterday that I shared on Facebook earlier today. In his honor I present this related POTD post. Dolmens are megalithic structures known in northern Europe and elsewhere, but are especially numerous in hills adjacent to the Jordan River, particularly (and almost exclusively) on the east side in the country of Jordan.

Dolmens above Wadi Jadideh, Jordan, with Mount Nebo in the distant background at right (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2012-06-30)

These dolmens have been variously interpreted, but are almost certainly tombs dating to the Early Bronze I period (about 3700-3000 BC). Under this interpretation, the mystery is why some, but not all, Early Bronze I settlements have dolmen fields nearby.

David Maltsberger and I conducted the Irbid Region Dolmen Survey, Jordan, in 2012-2013, with a primary interest in dolmen orientation. During the work, I concluded that dolmen construction was determined by the type of bedrock present (and suspected that orientation was largely a function of the terrain and slope). David and I met James Fraser when we presented our study at a conference. He was finishing a dissertation on dolmens and kindly shared his research with us. It has now been published as Dolmens in the Levant, PEF Annual XIV, 2018.

Dolmens at Kfur Yuba, near Irbid, Jordan, cataloged during the Irbid Region Dolmen Survey, (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2013-06-13)

Fraser beat us to the punch on the geology issue and added the astute observation that dolmens were used as family tombs for EB I settlements in areas of hard bedrock, while other EB I settlements carved family tombs into their softer geological substrate. There is one place where both types of tombs exist side-by-side; at Dahmiyah, overlooking the Jordan Valley.

A porthole dolmen at Dahmiyah, Jordan (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2013-06-20)

At Dahmiyah, a number of dolmens have “porthole” entrances (above), in which a framed opening is carved through the closing slab. This feature doesn’t make much sense functionally. But this odd entrance mimics the openings of nearby carved cave-tombs from the same period. In other words, it represents a cultural continuity even with a change of tomb type.

“Dr. Dave” Maltsberger and Ancient Dan with EB carved tombs at Dahmiyah, Jordan (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2013-06-20)

The difficulty of access to Dahmiyah earns this post a “You Don’t Get This on the Bus Tour” cross-categorization.

“Dr. Dave” tentatively peers into a spider-infested EB I tomb at Dahmiyah (it might be noted that the photographer is already fully invested in the arachnid hole; (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2013-06-20)

Unfortunately, difficult access does not prevent exploitation of the hillsides there. The area is now a quarry —the tragic fate that threatens many dolmen fields (that hard bedrock is still in demand). Indeed, dolmens are disappearing from the landscape at an alarming rate . . .

A damaged porthole dolmen and an excavator—the main natural predator of dolmens—at Dahmiyah, Jordan (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2013-06-20)

Next up: something almost completely different; a dolmen in Ireland (click here to go to it).

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Pic of the Day 2019-01-03: Dry Dry Desert

As I write this on the evening of 3 January 2019, I cannot remember having seen the sun since mid-afternoon of 27 December (and then just after driving through a blinding thunderstorm). It is raining outside and that has been the norm for eons, it seems. So . . . I needed to look at some pics of drier and happier times. And I share these for anyone who needs to experience such vicariously.

Ancient Dan and David Maltsberger at Qasr Bashir, a Roman cavalry fort in Jordan (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2013-06-19)

The qualifications were simple: no clouds and no water. I came upon this, one of my favorite in-the-field selfies (does a timer pic count as a selfie?) with my erstwhile field research friend and colleague, David. We are at one of my favorite sites: Qasr Bashir in Jordan in 2013. It is a great place; devoid of rain, clouds, and other (living) people. And I also have a pic of my wife, Felicia, there in 2015:

Mrs. Ancient Dan in front of the gate at Qasr Bashir in 2015 (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2015-03-15)

I have many photos of places with bluer skies, but this one meets all the qualifications above every time I visit.

Ancient Dan on the NE tower at Qasr Bashir in 2013 (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2013-06-19)

I’ll not elaborate here on the site, as it deserves its own “You Don’t Get This on the Bus Tour” post. Just enjoy the dry for now.

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