Pic of the Day 2019-01-11: Dolmens and Tombs (you don’t get this on the bus tour)

Dolmen scholar James Fraser’s work was featured in a Jordan Times article yesterday that I shared on Facebook earlier today. In his honor I present this related POTD post. Dolmens are megalithic structures known in northern Europe and elsewhere, but are especially numerous in hills adjacent to the Jordan River, particularly (and almost exclusively) on the east side in the country of Jordan.

Dolmens above Wadi Jadideh, Jordan, with Mount Nebo in the distant background at right (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2012-06-30)

These dolmens have been variously interpreted, but are almost certainly tombs dating to the Early Bronze I period (about 3700-3000 BC). Under this interpretation, the mystery is why some, but not all, Early Bronze I settlements have dolmen fields nearby.

David Maltsberger and I conducted the Irbid Region Dolmen Survey, Jordan, in 2012-2013, with a primary interest in dolmen orientation. During the work, I concluded that dolmen construction was determined by the type of bedrock present (and suspected that orientation was largely a function of the terrain and slope). David and I met James Fraser when we presented our study at a conference. He was finishing a dissertation on dolmens and kindly shared his research with us. It has now been published as Dolmens in the Levant, PEF Annual XIV, 2018.

Dolmens at Kfur Yuba, near Irbid, Jordan, cataloged during the Irbid Region Dolmen Survey, (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2013-06-13)

Fraser beat us to the punch on the geology issue and added the astute observation that dolmens were used as family tombs for EB I settlements in areas of hard bedrock, while other EB I settlements carved family tombs into their softer geological substrate. There is one place where both types of tombs exist side-by-side; at Dahmiyah, overlooking the Jordan Valley.

A porthole dolmen at Dahmiyah, Jordan (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2013-06-20)

At Dahmiyah, a number of dolmens have “porthole” entrances (above), in which a framed opening is carved through the closing slab. This feature doesn’t make much sense functionally. But this odd entrance mimics the openings of nearby carved cave-tombs from the same period. In other words, it represents a cultural continuity even with a change of tomb type.

“Dr. Dave” Maltsberger and Ancient Dan with EB carved tombs at Dahmiyah, Jordan (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2013-06-20)

The difficulty of access to Dahmiyah earns this post a “You Don’t Get This on the Bus Tour” cross-categorization.

“Dr. Dave” tentatively peers into a spider-infested EB I tomb at Dahmiyah (it might be noted that the photographer is already fully invested in the arachnid hole; (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2013-06-20)

Unfortunately, difficult access does not prevent exploitation of the hillsides there. The area is now a quarry —the tragic fate that threatens many dolmen fields (that hard bedrock is still in demand). Indeed, dolmens are disappearing from the landscape at an alarming rate . . .

A damaged porthole dolmen and an excavator—the main natural predator of dolmens—at Dahmiyah, Jordan (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2013-06-20)

Next up: something almost completely different; a dolmen in Ireland (click here to go to it).

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Pic of the Day 2019-01-03: Dry Dry Desert

As I write this on the evening of 3 January 2019, I cannot remember having seen the sun since mid-afternoon of 27 December (and then just after driving through a blinding thunderstorm). It is raining outside and that has been the norm for eons, it seems. So . . . I needed to look at some pics of drier and happier times. And I share these for anyone who needs to experience such vicariously.

Ancient Dan and David Maltsberger at Qasr Bashir, a Roman cavalry fort in Jordan (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2013-06-19)

The qualifications were simple: no clouds and no water. I came upon this, one of my favorite in-the-field selfies (does a timer pic count as a selfie?) with my erstwhile field research friend and colleague, David. We are at one of my favorite sites: Qasr Bashir in Jordan in 2013. It is a great place; devoid of rain, clouds, and other (living) people. And I also have a pic of my wife, Felicia, there in 2015:

Mrs. Ancient Dan in front of the gate at Qasr Bashir in 2015 (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2015-03-15)

I have many photos of places with bluer skies, but this one meets all the qualifications above every time I visit.

Ancient Dan on the NE tower at Qasr Bashir in 2013 (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2013-06-19)

I’ll not elaborate here on the site, as it deserves its own “You Don’t Get This on the Bus Tour” post. Just enjoy the dry for now.

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Pic of the Day 2018-10-03: Sela and “The Rock”

A brief mention of “wondrous” landscapes in my graduate Geography seminar last night and tonight’s episode of a daring Bible study series at University Baptist Church have inspired me to return to my recently neglected blog with this Pic of the Day (actually several pics) installment; which also clearly rates cross-listing as a You Don’t Get This on the Bus Tour post!   

Brett Harris, new co-pastor at UBC, is leading a study of “Overlooked and Avoided Scriptures,” with frank discussion on seeking the good news in neglected or troubling passages. Tonight was the whole (1 chapter) book of Obadiah, frequently described as a song of hatred against Edom. Edom was a brother nation to Israel/Judah (descended from Esau, older twin of Jacob/Israel) with which Judah had an ugly sibling rivalry. During the study I looked with interest at the translation of Obadiah 3 which makes reference to Edom living in the “clefts of the rock (from which the LORD will bring them down in v. 4). “Rock” renders the Hebrew Sela‘, which also designates a place by that name. I also grabbed a copy of The Good News Bible, a translation known for its line-drawing illustrations, curious to see how it handled Obadiah. It included this illustration:

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The Good News Bible got it right. The site of Sela is still called today (in Arabic) es-Sela. The place was rightly called “The Rock” by its inhabitants: 

Sela:

Sela, at left-center and center, is a deceptively large, rugged, and isolated massif in the mountains of Edom, today southern Jordan; for scale, the end of a paved road might be made out at right center (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2015-03-12)

The path up, from about two thirds of the way there (You definitely Don’t Get This on the Bus Tour):

Sela: Katy Bynum, Shane McInnis, Gabe May, Jana Barkley

Sela: the entrance path (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2015-03-12)
Sela:

Remains of the entry gate of the plateau at Sela (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2015-03-12)

What passes for a plateau is a jumble of deep crevices, higher peaks, and dome-shaped rocks incised with hints of the structures once built onto, under, and atop them.

Sela: Shane McInnis

One of  Sela’s many rock-cut structures (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2015-03-12)
Sela: Katy Bynum

Sela: hints of former grandeur (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2015-03-12)

It is truly a “wondrous” landscape, with no other human beings in sight, which practically forces you to contemplate what once was there and what happened.

Sela: Stacey Figueiredo

Wonder(ing) woman at Sela (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2018-03-12)
Sela: Shane McInnis

Wondering man at Sela (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2018-03-12)

The site is unexcavated but surface finds indicate its most intense occupation was during the Iron II period, the time of the Israelite kingdoms and Obadiah. Sela also appears in 2 Kings 14:7 and 2 Chronicles 25:12 (often translated “a rock), where ten thousand Edomites were thrown from the top by the Judean king Amaziah.

Sela:

View from near the top of Sela; there is that road again, and just below the end of the road (at center) stands my lovely wife, wondering what possessed us to climb “The Rock” (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2018-03-12)

Did Obadiah’s prediction of doom for Edom and Sela literally occur? Ironically, it may have been by the hand of the same enemy that vanquished Judah and occasioned the prophet’s railing against the “brother” nation for not rendering aid. The enigmatic last king of Babylon, Nabonidus (555–539 BC), is known to have campaigned near Edom. An unreadable monumental inscription in Babylonian style, surely commemorating a conquest, can be seen on the lower slopes of the Sela massif. 

Sela: Nabonidus Inscription

An inscription, in the rectangular frame on the stone face at top center, features a Babylonian king (almost certainly Nabonidus), symbols of Babylonian deities, and an illegible cuneiform text (photo © Daniel C Browning Jr, 2018-03-12)

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